The Relationship Manilkara zapota, Tumor Necrosis factor Alpha (TNFα) Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGFβ), and Gastric Ulcers

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Syamsu Rijal
Upik Adriani Miskad
Muhammad Husni Changara
Agussalim Bukhari
Didik Setyo Heriyanto
Gemini Alam
Nu'mang AS Daud
Andi Alfian Zainuddin


Introduction: Gastric hyperacidity and gastroduodenal ulcers are serious global problems today. A disease found in many people throughout the world and often caused by excessive alcohol consumption. Important factors in the pathogenesis of acute gastric mucosal lesions induced by ethanol. The accumulation of ROS induces oxidative stress and causes gastric inflammation, gastric ulcers and perforation. This will trigger the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines regulated by NF-кB and Activator protein 1 (AP-1). Interleukin (IL)-1b, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) are the two main cytokines involved in this inflammatory response.

Objectives: The purpose of writing this review is to determine based on existing literature the effect of administering M. zapota fruit extract on the healing of gastric ulcers of Wistar rats induced by absolute ethanol by determining differences in ulcer scores, ulcer index, and PMN ( Polymophonuclear) leukocyte count in the stomach. Wistar rats induced by absolute ethanol and given M. zapota fruit extract, apart from that, also to determine the differences based on the immunoexpression of TNFα and TGF β

Conclusions: Manilkara zapota has attracted attention in relation to the prevention of gastric ulcers. Several studies have shown that Manilkara zapota leaf extract has gastroprotective effects and may protect the gastric mucosa from damage induced by agents such as ethanol. In addition, Manilkara zapota is also believed to have a role in reducing the production of inflammatory factors, such as Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNFα) and Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGFβ).

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Syamsu Rijal, Upik Adriani Miskad, Muhammad Husni Changara, Agussalim Bukhari, Didik Setyo Heriyanto, Gemini Alam, Nu’mang AS Daud, & Andi Alfian Zainuddin. (2024). The Relationship Manilkara zapota, Tumor Necrosis factor Alpha (TNFα) Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGFβ), and Gastric Ulcers. Journal for ReAttach Therapy and Developmental Diversities, 7(2), 25–37.
Author Biographies

Syamsu Rijal

Doctoral Study Program Student, Faculty of Medicine, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia

Upik Adriani Miskad

Department of Anatomical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia

Muhammad Husni Changara

Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia

Agussalim Bukhari

Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia

Didik Setyo Heriyanto

Department of Anatomical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Gajah Mada University, Jogjakarta, Indonesia

Gemini Alam

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia

Nu'mang AS Daud

Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia

Andi Alfian Zainuddin

Department of Public Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia


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